Lots of great mentions thus far - Chick, Herbie, lots of the CTI stuff, so many actually...
Then there's how all of the above filtered in pop and funk -
A couple of years ago, Spectrasonics developed a virtual instrument plug-in that attempts to model tons of classic electric piano sounds (because there are various generations of the Rhodes and how technicians could get it up - plus typical effects). This is a video where they got session great Greg Phillinganes to demonstrate how he and this plug-in could recreate all of these classic sounds.
I thought the OP might dig it for how it basically solos these sounds for us to have a closer listen. Plus Greg is simply a monster.. (All of this isn't Rhodes - there's Wurlies and Electric Grands in there too - but they're all labeled)
In a more R&B setting Richard Tee was always THE sound of the Rhodes to me.
And this is some music that I have been on for the last few years. DANGEROUS stuff. People forget that Keith really embraced the Rhodes at first.
and part 2
But the originator (for me, aside from Chick) was Jan Hammer with the ring modulator, distortion, etc. getting all those guitar sounds. Of course his work with Mahavishnu is legendary, and he also made the Moog his thing later.
But this is a fantastic record!!!!! A personal fave!!!!
I wish I had bought a Rhodes back in the early 80's when you could get them for like $100 there was a time where nobody wanted that sound. Oh well.